Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Jeep Willys CJ6 with 4 doors and a metal top

Took these pictures 9 years ago in my neighborhood, and never saw this one again or any other Jeep CJ from that vintage with a metal top. Similar adaptations used to be quite popular in Argentina, but are uncommon in Brazil. This top and doors were made by Carraço, a company that got specialized in those accessories not just for the Jeep Willys but also for other 4WD utility vehicles such as the DKW-Vemag Candango (a local variant of the West German DKW Munga).
When that enclosure was introduced in the '60s, it became perceived to be more refined than the more usual canvas tops, rendering the Jeep more suitable to match the aspirations of a then-emerging urban middle class with the need for a vehicle rugged enough to cope with the harsh road conditions.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Brazilian Volkswagen Transporter T2 Pritschenwagen (pick-up) with a regional high-volume van conversion and a graffiti paintjob

It's no surprise the Volkswagen Transporter T1 and T2 became so popular in Brazil, and remain to this day as one of the most iconic utility vehicles ever. This one, specifically, had been originally a pick-up, but had been converted into a high-cube van. Probably its first duty was delivery of cigarettes, or Elma Chips (local branch of Frito-Lay) snacks, until it finally found a new life hauling handicraft products to be sold at open-air exhibits that happen quite frequently in Porto Alegre. Spotted this one yesterday in the afternoon at the Farroupilha Park, just a few blocks away from downtown Porto Alegre.

Wednesday, November 08, 2017

1996-2000 Dodge Grand Caravan with Opel Astra H headlamps

Spotted this Dodge Caravan in one of the parking lots of the Salgado Filho International Airport, in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. At a first sight from distance, while going by the Aeromóvel (a pneumatic-propelled monorail) from a nearby train station to the main terminal, this appeared to be something more exotic, such as the facelifted 1st generation of the Chinese-market Buick GL8.

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Why do internal-combustion engines still seem viable in the foreseeable future?

The internal-combustion engine has been a reliable source of power for more than a century, and the basic operating principles are pretty much unchanged in this meantime. Compared to external-combustion machinery, such as the Watt's steam engine, the safety has been a noticeable advantage, even though it's limited to run on liquid or gaseous fuels. However, the predominance of petroleum-based fuels became a matter of concern in recent decades, not just due to environmental motivations but also because of the petroleum being a finite resource. This, and the advances in electric engines and batteries, is leading to some questionings about the viability of internal-combustion engines in the foreseeable future. However, it doesn't seem accurate to single-out engine technology as the main problem, while a better selection of renewable fuels could actually improve their environmental record.

While there has been some expectations around electric drive as a "cleaner" alternative to internal-combustion engines, especially in the automobile industry which still relies heavily on them, it's not so accurate to neglect some issues surrounding the reliability of battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) under certain operating conditions. Even though it may fare well in stop-and-go traffic, and the footprint of electric power generation is expected to go down as much as solar, tidal and wind power get widespread, there are still many concerns about the current status-quo with either a dependence on coal which is highly pollutant or hydroelectric which capacity is often compromised by unfavorable weather conditions such as longer dry periods. However, the effects of subtle weather changes on those alternative power sources is also far from negligible, and when it comes to wind power there had been some concerns about its effect on wind directions and how it would affect the migrating birds. The chemical compounds used in batteries, and the availability of raw materiais suitable to their manufacturing, had also been a subject of uncertainties due to the political allignment of certain countries with large reserves of lithium such as Bolivia.

The frequent usage of internal-combustion engines for electric power generation, either continuously or as a standby emergency setup, is another critical aspect to take in account. It's also important to remind the ease of handling inherent to most of the traditional liquid fuels, with Diesel fuel being still prevalent for that application, and the availability of gaseous fuels that could also be used, quickly turning a genset into a valuable asset in areas prone to weather-related power shortages at a higher rate. Despite it being possible to store electric power supplied by the grid during low-demand hours to use later in peak hours, and even the battery of an electric car such as the Nissan Leaf may fare as a limited power supply to the household during a shortage, gensets powered by an internal-combustion engine are still likely to remain quite common, while electric vehicles are going to keep relying heavily on government incentives as an attempt to increase their acceptance among the general public.

Other application for which the internal-combustion engine has been unbeatable is on utility boats, for which the harsh environmental conditions such as the salt mist are a matter of concern. After the Diesel engines successfully replaced the failure-prone and labor-intensive coal-fired steam engines about a century ago, there has been virtually no competition other than gas turbines. It could sound quite simple to harvest solar and wind power for a boat, not just for motion but also to supply power for communication and navigation devices such as a radio and a GPS, or comfort features, but it would still be subject to eventual weather changes and compromise the power supply. The energy density of an internal-combustion powerplant with all the fuel, lube oil and eventually other fluids required is usually still more favorable than what could be achieved with an all-electric setup (excluding on-board generation from solar or wind power in order to keep it more predictable), which is more suitable for such a weight-sensitive application.

Another aspect that should be always taken into account instead of pushing electric drive as the one-size-fits-all solution is the closure of the carbon cycle, which is actually way more effective with the internal-combustion engines. Their suitability to operate with renewable hydrocarbons is a valuable asset, considering that post-combustion CO² has a shorter half-life than methane which is the main component of Natural Gas and is methabolised more easily by vegetable stocks, either agricultural crops and pastures or forests. We must consider that organic matter is always going to rot away, so it would be better to keep it under control and take benefit from any energy that could be harvested, which includes ethanol that can be brewed out of virtually any starch, sugar, molasses or even cellulose, and the biomethane that is released by a wider range of feedstocks. Due to the technology required to make a spark-ignited engine run on those fuels being already commercially-available, sure there is some hope for internal combustion even in this post-Dieselgate world...

With operating principles remaining nearly unaltered for more than 100 years, internal-combustion engines have been a reliable power supply not just for mobility but also for many other activities of the mankind. Addressing issues concerning to the quality of fuels and lube oils supplied to those amazing machines seems to be actually more effective in order to claim a better environmental record for them, in order to ensure the best balance of sustainability and economic viability Even though it might seem like we're desperately attempting to stick with the past, it becomes hard to deny how suitable the internal-combustion engine is going to remain in a foreseeable future.

Monday, September 04, 2017

One of the most unconventional food-trucks in Brazil

I saw it a few times in Florianópolis, capital of Santa Catarina state. I have no clue how the driver is able to look around while driving, but it does drive. I took this picture in the Pantanal neighborhood, but I have seen it before in Rio Tavares. It's been built around a Ford Corcel, which is a local derivative of the Renault 12 that was under development when Ford purchased the assets of Willys-Overland, which represented Renault interests in Brazil.
Picture merely illustrative

Saturday, May 06, 2017

Toyota J40-series truck with a different bodywork

Brazilian-made Toyota Bandeirante, a local derivative of the J40-series Land Cruiser, fitted with a custom sport-side tray and a few mods to the cabin. The doors look like they came from a Willys All-Steel Station Wagon (mostly known in Brazil as "Rural Willys"). The cabin also appears to have been a little longer than stock, and the lack of those rear-quarter windows highlight it.

Saturday, February 25, 2017

Yamaha TDR 180, a Brazilian makeshift approach to the overseas TDR 250

Brazil has always held some peculiarities when it comes to the local vehicles market, not just the cars and commercial vehicles but naturally the motorcycles too. It's important to point out there were restrictions against imports from '76 to '90, which in a market where motorcycles previously had been considered more like a leisure vehicle than an affordable commuter, low-displacement models were setting the change to that point of view. Stricter local content policies were also not so inviting to set a local production of a wider range of models in higher displacement classes, since not just the domestic market demand for them wouldn't justify the investment but the logistics to export most of the output posed as another challenge.
So, while a motorcycle culture was starting to ressurge in the '80s, the easiest way to provide newer models presumably more up-to-date with the international offerings was the adaptation of whatever locally-built engine available. One of the makeshift versions from that period is the '89-'93 Yamaha TDR 180, which relied on the very same single-cylinder air-cooled engine fitted to the DT 180 at that time instead of the liquid-cooled parallel-twin from the '88-'93 TDR 250 marketed elsewhere. It might be quite arguable that a milder version of the parallel-twin from the Brazilian Yamaha RD 350 LC could have been a better choice in order to retain a performance level more consistent to its purpose, but once again it's worth remember the Brazilian economy downturns right after the end of the military government, and then the choice for a cheaper engine to be shared with the DT 180 makes some sense.
Other cost-cutting measure that might spark further controvery is the rear drum brake, in opposition to the all-around disc setup fitted to its foreign counterpart. Though back in the day it didn't really seem to bother anybody so badly, now it's occasionally pointed as an example of disregard to Brazilian customers who were offered a supposedly "inferior" product much like the automobile industry still does nowadays. Nevertheless, in spite of any criticism that may arise against either its performance or other features, the Yamaha TDR 180 was actually an interesting development once we consider the context of the period it was introduced. And it still looks cool at all.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

Honda CBR 450 SR Aero Sport made only in Brazil

Honda had been the most popular motorcycle manufacturer in Brazil since it started local production in '76 with the utilitarian CG 125, which is still a best-seller, but it also had ventured in other segments and even developed some models according to peculiarities of the local market such as the restrictions set against the imports that lastes from '76 to '90. Among the most interesting ones, there is the CBR 450 SR Aero Sport introduced in '89 which, surprisingly, soldiered on until '94 when the competition brought by the imported motorcycles was embraced even by Honda itself.
Unlike the considerably more advanced 4-cylinder engines used in other models of the CBR series in the international markets, this beauty relied on the well-proven parallel-twin that was already fitted to the CB 450N (then known in Brazil as CB 450 DX). On the other hand, its frame, suspension, brakes and styling cues were up-to-date with their Japanese counterparts, bearing some close resemblance to the JDM 4-cylinder '87 CBR 250 RR MC17. It held the distinction of being the first 4-stroke sports motorcycle with a full fairing to be made in Brazil, and even had some discrete presence in regional export markets.
Beyond its performance orientation, the Honda CBR 450 SR Aero Sport is also regarded as a good commuter for both city and roadway use due to its compact size that favors the maneuverability and the responsiveness of the parallel-twin that is actually more suitable to the low-end torque compared to a higher-revving 4-cylinder.
It would only find and indirect replacement on the CBR 500 R introduced in 2013, but the old 450 simply refuses to die and some can still be seen roaming around.

Monday, January 30, 2017

Can other custom/cruiser motorcycles be more desirable than a Harley-Davidson?

We all know that Harley-Davidson is one of the most traditional motorcycle makers, still regarded as a premium brand even though it's technically outdated compared to the competition from Europe and Japan. The air-cooled V-Twins with a transversely-oriented crankshaft still fitted to the majority of the Harley-Davidson range end up having a poor cooling, especially of the rear cylinder, leading to frequent overheatings that are anedoctally reported to burn out the hairs from the legs of their riders.

Sure the growing presence of the so-called "universal Japanese" or "standard Japanese" motorcycles such as the Honda CB 450 all around the world since the late-'60s ended up relegating American motorcycle makers such as Harley-Davidson and Europeans such as BMW Motorrad to lower-volume niches with a higher profit margin, but it didn't really prevent the Japanese to enter those very same high-end segments with the cost advantage of a full volume production. Nowadays, even in the custom/cruiser segment which is the last one that Harley-Davidson is still present owing basically to its "tradition", there will be some competition such as the Suzuki Intruder series. Apart from technical advantages such as increased performance, efficiency and comfort, the liquid-cooled V-Twin engines offered by Japanese motorcycle makers don't compromise the aesthetics sought after by those who are into the custom motorcycle scene.

Other cylinder layouts, such as the flat-twin featured in the BMW R-series and the parallel-twin which is more frequent in British motorcycles such as the Triumph Bonneville, also have advantages that must be considered. While an opposed-cylinder engine sets the center of gravity a little lower, thus leading to an enhanced stability in crosswind conditions, an inline-cylinder still has more main bearings to support the crankshaft and its loads compared to every other layout. When it comes to cooling, since the most usual setup for flat-twins in motorcycles is a longitudinally-oriented crankshaft with the cylinders hanging out to opposide sides, they get exposed equally to the oncoming airflow much in the same way observed in a transverse parallel-twin.

Even though Harley-Davidson engines are usually set to narrower RPM bands more comparable to a car engine that turn them more suitable to some relaxed cruising, and could actually fare reasonably in a compact car as long as some improvement to the cooling air flow is applied, most of the competition offers a better performance at a broader range of conditions. And then, basically what's left for Harley-Davidson is cater to those more attracted to that "one-percenter" profile.

Monday, January 16, 2017

Is a 4th wheel really necessary?

For quite a long time, the private ownership of a car had been praised as a status symbol. Mechanical complexity and the inherently high maintenance cost had made it harder for lower-income Europeans to afford it, plus there was another risk of engine damage due to freezing of the cooling water when parked outside in the winter. In times when antifreezing radiator fluids were seen as quite of a sci-fi deal, the release of economy cars with air-cooled engines such as the Volkswagen Beetle and the motorcycle-engined BMW Isetta meant that it would finally become technically viable for many who couldn't afford havign a heated garage at home.
Even though the Isetta was not so conventional at all, being available either in the 4-wheel version with a narrower rear track in order to not require an open differential or in a 3-wheel version catering to markets where the register as a motorcycle led to a lower licensing cost, not just the perceived status of a car but also concerns about stability turned the 4-wheel into a more desirable option. The enhanced comfort in rain and snow was clearly an advantage compared to a motorcycle with sidecar, which until the postwar used to be the main alternative for those who needed an improvement to either the cargo or passenger capacity and couldn't afford to own a conventional car, but it's possible that showing off aboard something peceived as "superior" to a motorcycle could be an even stronger sales argument...

The same perception that led 4-wheel vehicles to be regarded as more desirable echoed to a much lower extent to commercial operators in a worldwide basis, to a point that certain tricycles such as the Piaggio Ape and its Indian derivatives even became praised as some sort of cultural icon. Advantages such as a lower fuel consumption and a fewer amount of components that would need replacements such as tyres, springs, shocks and brake pads are a valuable asset to enhance the profitability, and nowadays those seem to be more likely to increase the presence of 3-wheel vehicles as a cost-effective response to stricter environmental standards affecting the cars and light commercial vehicles market. Passenger applications are still a taboo in some countries, not just developed ones such as Australia and the United States but even third-world ones like my homeland Brazil where the Indian "tuk-tuk" grabbed more attention after being featured in an India-themed soap-opera but is still faced more as a curiosity than as an effective option to enhance urban mobility.
Naturally, the low performance of a "tuk-tuk" is a downside while looking for a vehicle suitable not just to city traffic but also to occasional road trips, with this kind of compromise being undesirable for customers who wouldn't afford to own a second vehicle dedicated to go through longer distances at higher speeds. On the other hand, pointing out the 3-wheel layout as unsuitable to road traffic without a compromise to the safety is not accurate at all, as it have been already proven by so many Volkswagen-based custom trikes. Inherent risks of the all-open seating area usually featured on them shall not be disconsidered, but are far from being reasonable grounds to rule 3-wheel vehicles out.


The popularity of small coupé-utilities, which raised from a low-cost alternative aimed at commercial operators to a somewhat trendy option for those who want to pose as a "gas-station cowboy", can be seen as a precedent to an eventual increase to the acceptance of utility tricycles among private users. It's already happening in Uruguay, where the lower purchase price and running cost of Chinese-made cargo tricycles with a fully-enclosed cabin featuring car-like controls have turned them into a viable option to replace badly worn-out older vehicles with comparable capabilities. The improvements to the fuel-efficiency are also noticeable, with a decrease in emissions as a secondary advantage. Sure there are some political and cultural factors that lead this option to a wider acceptance in Uruguay, ranging from the lack of a protectionist policy aimed at the nearly-defunct local auto industry to the higher degree of success in the "whitening" policies enforced in most South American countries right after the abolishment of slavery to a point that it's not so usual to spot a black Uruguayan (even a kid who tried to sell me weed a few years ago was white), but it doesn't seem impossible to eventually become more accepted in Brazil too. For those who either can't afford a 4-wheel vehicle or just look for some inexpensive commuter, it's not a bad choice at all.

Sidecars and some crude tricycle conversions became more widespread in Brazil in the last 10 years, mostly based on low-displacement motorcycles and catering to commercial operators but, due to the skyrocketing fuel costs and the scarcity of parking spots on the streets, the lower fuel consumption and smaller footprint have turned these alternatives more attractive to private users too. Once again the lack of weather protection is somewhat undesirable, but it still doesn't outweight the savings. While it's still more usual to see it used to deliver bottled water and propane, the popular perception of this device as a makeshift is quickly fading away. The outrageous prices of a brand-new car is also leading sidecars to become an alternative for novice motorcycle users looking for a small boost to the passenger capacity at a total cost that remains proportionately lower.



Unfortunately, the average mentality in Brazil goes beyond the perception of the car ownership as a matter of status, even though it's just a local penalty-box such as the Chevrolet Celta or an old import worn-out to the point that it would be more valuable if parted-out. The main reason for many people in Brazil to get a car is to show-off to neighbors or to the "gas whores", and there is always some lame excuses given when somebody's bad taste for cars is addressed. It's not unusual for Brazilian ricers to act like spoiled children and label every criticism as "envy", even if the money blown in their failed attempts to improve the looks of their rides could be better spent upgrading to a stock one of a higher segment instead, but it just serves to point that reasonability is not always treated as a priority by those looking to get a car.


Anyway, despite some calls for a performance improvement desirable to keep up with road traffic, and therefore increase their overall versatility, tricycles and sidecars have already proven their value as an asset to raise the efficiency of the urban mobility. So, in many circumstances, it's not a higher amount of wheels what could define which vehicle is "better".